In school we learn how to read and write using phonics. This means that as well as every letter having a name, each letter shape (grapheme) also makes a specific sound. These sounds are called phonemes. There are 44 sounds in the English language. Some sounds are made by individual graphemes, others are made by 2 letters working together; we call these digraphs (e.g sh, th ), or 3 letters working together; we call these trigraphs (e.g igh).

When we first learn phonics there are lots of resources to help us.

Please find below some useful links to help teach your child to read and write:

Phase 1 – understanding that sounds are different, learning to listen carefully.

Phase 2/3 – learning letter shapes and all 44 sounds. We also learn some tricky words.


Phase 4 – practicing using all that super phonics knowledge so far.

Phase 5 – learning alternative spellings to some of our 44 sounds and lots of tricky words.

Phase 6 – learning spelling rules, memory strategies for spellings, understanding past tense, reading strategies, dictionary skills, understanding apostrophes for contractions, dictation and proof reading.